Stateful Applications

What are user sessions and why we need to avoid them?

What are user Sessions in a Software Application? Do we need them? If not how to achieve sessions in Stateless application?

User Sessions

The backend application servers Tomcat, Jetty, ASP.NET, Django etc., have a concept of “Session” or “State Management”.

User Session is a temporary collection of objects stored in memory for a specific user with strict time to live (TTL)(eg. 30 mins). Remember JSESSIONID ?

For Eg:

  1. We have a cluster of application nodes — N1, N2 & N3 — all running server instances.
User sessions

The Bad

Session Management

Now, in the above example, let us say node N1 goes down for some reason, we will lose all the sessions stored in N1. So by design we keep a replica of N1:sessions in say N3.

If node N1 goes down, requests are routed to N3 and N3 now serves both N1 & N3. N1 recovers & new requests will go there. N3 will continue to serve users with capacity equal to two nodes.

Then application servers like ATG Dynamo brought the concept of Session Federation — which balances the sessions across all nodes & load balance the traffic accordingly whenever there is change to number of active nodes. They flush sessions from node to node, keeping a registry of session to node mapping in a node. That will have a replica as well. See, now this is getting complicated.

Bloating Sessions

Developers started using this utility object (session) conveniently for storing tons of other metadata about the user — to avoid expensive DB calls. Now, sessions started to grow like kitchen sink. Imagine if you have JVM with > 50% of memory used for storing sessions.

Session OR state management was a fancy design pattern of 2000s, it is not followed anymore. So we may see this in legacy applications. Newer applications follow a simpler approach.


  1. Session Repository

Instead of every node managing sessions, manage them in a central high speed cache datastore like Memcached or Redis.


  1. Now, nodes need not worry about maintaining local Sessions

2. Completely Stateless or No concept of sessions

Remove the need for sessions altogether. For performance, better data modeling should help. If we are dealing with existing low performant infrastructure, use caching as needed.


One positive outlook is — the concept of sessions or sticky sessions could help us with Testing a feature going live. Imagine you are pushing code & you want to test the application with your request hitting the latest version of the application — ec2 instance / k8s pod. AWS Classic ELB supports sticky sessions and so does k8s (session affinity). However, this need not be used for managing user sessions.


  1. Session Management in Java — Old example. Nobody uses JSPs these days. So read for conceptual understanding.

Building software platforms for tomorrow.